Fishmeal Quality Glossary

Biogenic Amines (ppm) :

Organic compounds generated during the decomposition process of the fish, directly affecting the quality of a fishmeal. Ammonia is a volatile nitrogen compound and histamine is a biogenic amine.

Histamine (ppm) :

Organic compound resulting from enzymatic decarboxilation of histidine (aminoacid), naturally present in the fish. It is a good indicator of the freshness of the raw material at the beginning of processing. A low level of histamine (<1000 ppm) in fishmeal indicates a very fresh fish, wich proves adequate for use in feeding certain species in aquaculture.

TVN (mg/100g) :

TVN or Total Volatile Nitrogen is a parameter that measures the presence of volatile nitrogenated basis in the raw material, or in fishmeal. When controlled in the raw material, it gives a clear estimate of the quality of the final product (fishmeal) to be obtained. TVN is very commonly specified as a commercial condition for the fishmeal. For very high quality products, a maximum of 100-120 mg N/100g. is required. TVN must not be looked alone, but together with other quality parameters in order to get a real quality assurance. For each 100 mg of TVN in the raw material you lose 0.625 % of protein(Nitrogen x 6.25 = Protein).

FFA (%) :

FFA or Free Fatty Acid, is expressed in % of oleic acid. It controls the degree of degradation of the fat contained in the fishmeal, wich is affected among other by sunlight and oxygen. Its evidence shows in changes in smell and taste of the product. A low value of FFA, indicates a good quality product. Same as TVN, this parameter is used as specification of final product, and for high quality products a maximum of 10% is normaly required. Spoilage of fish can also increase the FFA in the oil.

Digestibility (%) :

This parameter indicates the % of digestible protein in a fishmeal. Methodology used is based on protein digestion by action of proteolitic enzymes. A high digestibility found in the product, confirms a controlled drying process at low temperatures.

Mixograph :

This equipment is used to check the capacity of a fishmeal to form a elastic mixture with startch and water. Normally used to check fishmeal to be used in eel feeds.

Antioxidant (ppm) :

This product is added during the fishmeal production process, in order to stabilize the fat content, and to avoid or reduce oxidation. If fishmeal appears in yellowish color that means the antioxide contain is low. The Red Circle outside the bag indicating treatment with Antioxidant.

Stickeness :

When the final use of fishmeal is Eel feeding, a special analysis is performed by means of a Mixograph equipment.Mixograph equipment measures the elastic properties of fish meal in a mixture of fish meal, starch and water.The information that can be obtained from Mixograph is of particular importance for Eel Feed Manufacturing Plants, since the elasticity of the final feed, which depends on fish meal quality, is a key parameter as to avoid disintegration of the product in the water, where eels are fed, avoiding feed losses and water contamination.Every delivered lot has its own Mixograph register and certification.


Fair average quality.

Cholera :
An acute infectious disease of the small intestine, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps, sever dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes.

Salmonella :
Any of various rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Salmonella, many of which are pathogenic, causing food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in human beings and other infectious diseases in domestic animals.

Shigella :
Any of various nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Shigella, which includes some species that cause dysentery.


Parts Per Million.